Metropolis (1927 film) - Wikipedia Metropolis is a 1927 German expressionist epic science-fiction drama film directed by Fritz Lang. He and his wife, Thea von Harbou, wrote the silent film, which ...
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Metropolis (1927 film) - Wikipedia Metropolis is a 1927 German expressionist epic science-fiction drama film directed by Fritz Lang. He and his wife, Thea von Harbou, wrote the silent film, which ...
Metropolis (1927 film) - Wikipedia Metropolis film redirects here The Blue Angel Kino Restored Edition For the 2001 film see Metropolis 2001 film Metropolis film redirects here For the Superman setting see Metropolis comics Metropolis is a 1927 German expressionist epic sciencefiction drama film directed by Fritz Lang He and his wife Thea von Harbou wrote the silent film which starred Gustav Fröhlich Brigitte Helm Alfred Abel and Rudolf KleinRogge Erich Pommer produced it in the Babelsberg Studios for Universum Film A G It is regarded as a pioneering work of the sciencefiction genre in movies being among the first featurelength movies of the genre 2 Made in Germany during the Weimar Period Metropolis is set in a futuristic urban dystopia and follows the attempts of Freder the wealthy son of the citys ruler and Maria a poor worker to overcome the vast gulf separating the classes of their city Filming took place in 1925 at a cost of approximately five million Reichsmarks 3 The art direction draws influence from Bauhaus Cubist and Futurist design Metropolis was met with a mixed reception upon release Critics found it pictorially beautiful and lauded its complex special effects but accused its story of naiveté The films extensive running time also came in for criticism as well as its alleged Communist message Metropolis was cut substantially after its German premiere removing a large portion of Langs original footage Numerous attempts have been made to restore the film since the 1970s Music producer Giorgio Moroder released a truncated version with a soundtrack by rock artists such as Freddie Mercury Loverboy and Adam Ant in 1984 A new reconstruction of Metropolis was shown at the Berlin Film Festival in 2001 and the film was inscribed on UNESCOs Memory of the World Register in the same year the first film thus distinguished In 2008 a damaged print of Langs original cut of the film was found in a museum in Argentina After a long restoration process the film was 95 restored and shown on large screens in Berlin and Frankfurt simultaneously on 12 February 2010 Contents 1 Plot 2 Cast 3 Influences 4 Production 4 1 Preproduction 4 2 Filming 4 3 Special effects 5 Music 5 1 Original score 5 2 Other soundtracks 6 Release 6 1 Reception 6 1 1 Later acclaim 6 2 Restorations 6 2 1 Giorgio Moroder Presents Metropolis 1984 6 2 2 Restored Authorized Edition 2002 6 2 3 The Complete Metropolis 2010 6 3 Copyright 7 Adaptations 8 In popular culture 9 See also 10 References 10 1 Notes 10 2 Citations 10 3 Bibliography 11 External links In the futuristic year of 2026 in the city of Metropolis wealthy industrialists reign from highrise tower complexes while undergrounddwelling workers toil to operate the underground machines that power the city Joh Fredersen is the citys master His son Freder idles away his time in a pleasure garden but is interrupted by the arrival of a young woman named Maria who has brought a group of workers children to witness the lifestyle of the rich Maria and the children are ushered away but Freder fascinated goes to the machine rooms to find her Witnessing the explosion of a huge machine that kills and injures several workers he also has a hallucination The machine is Moloch and the workers are being fed some naked into the flames within Moloch After the hallucination ends and he sees the dead workers being carried away on stretchers he hurries to tell Fredersen about the accident Grot foreman of the Heart Machine brings to Fredersen secret maps found on the dead workers Fredersen upset with his assistant Josaphat that he was informed about the explosion and plans from Freder and Grot and not from Josaphat fires him Freder secretly rebels against Fredersen by deciding to help the workers after seeing his fathers cold indifference towards the harsh conditions they face Fredersen takes the maps to the inventor Rotwang to learn their meaning Rotwang had been in love with a woman named Hel who left him to marry Fredersen and later died giving birth to Freder Rotwang shows Fredersen a robot he has built to resurrect Hel The maps show a network of catacombs beneath Metropolis and the two men go to investigate They eavesdrop on a gathering of workers including Freder Maria addresses them prophesying the arrival of a mediator who can bring the working and ruling classes together Freder believes that he could fill the role and declares his love for Maria Fredersen orders Rotwang to give Marias likeness to the robot so that it can ruin her reputation among the workers unaware that Rotwang plans to use the robot to kill Freder and bring down Metropolis Rotwang kidnaps Maria transfers her likeness to the robot and sends her to Fredersen Freder finds the two embracing and believing it is the real Maria falls into a prolonged delirium Intercut with his hallucinations the false Maria unleashes chaos throughout Metropolis driving men to murder and stirring dissent amongst the workers Freder recovers and returns to the catacombs Finding the false Maria urging the workers to rise up and destroy the machines Freder accuses her of not being the real Maria The workers follow the false Maria from their city to the machine rooms leaving their children behind They destroy the Heart Machine which causes the workers city below to flood The real Maria having escaped from Rotwangs house rescues the children with the help of Freder Grot berates the celebrating workers for abandoning their children in the flooded city Believing their children to be dead the hysterical workers capture the false Maria and burn her at the stake A horrified Freder watches not understanding the deception until the fire reveals her to be a robot Rotwang chases the real Maria to the roof of the cathedral pursued by Freder and the two men fight as Fredersen and the workers watch from the street Rotwang falls to his death Freder fulfills his role as mediator by linking the hands of Fredersen and Grot to bring them together Gustav Fröhlich as Freder Brigitte Helm as Maria and her robot doubleNotes 1 Alfred Abel as Joh Fredersen the master of Metropolis and Freders father Rudolf KleinRogge as Rotwang a Scientist Heinrich George as Grot the foreman of the Heart Machine Theodor Loos as Josaphat Fredersens assistant and Freders friend Fritz Rasp as The Thin Man Fredersens spy Erwin Biswanger as Georgy or 11811 a Worker Heinrich Gotho as Master of Ceremonies in Pleasure Gardens uncredited Among the uncredited actors are Margarete Lanner Helen von Münchofen Olaf Storm Georg John Helene Weigel Fritz Alberti and Curt Siodmak Influencesedit Metropolis features a range of elaborate special effects and set designs ranging from a huge gothic cathedral to a futuristic cityscape In an interview Fritz Lang reported that the film was born from my first sight of the skyscrapers in New York in October 1924 He had visited New York for the first time and remarked I looked into the streets – the glaring lights and the tall buildings – and there I conceived Metropolis Describing his first impressions of the city Lang said that the buildings seemed to be a vertical sail scintillating and very light a luxurious backdrop suspended in the dark sky to dazzle distract and hypnotize He added The sight of Neuyork sic alone should be enough to turn this beacon of beauty into the center of a film The appearance of the city in Metropolis is strongly informed by the Art Deco movement however it also incorporates elements from other traditions Ingeborg Hoesterey described the architecture featured in Metropolis as eclectic writing how its locales represent both functionalist modernism and art deco whilst also featuring the scientist’s archaic little house with its highpowered laboratory the catacombs and the Gothic cathedral The film’s use of art deco architecture was highly influential and has been reported to have contributed to the style’s subsequent popularity in Europe and America The film drew heavily on biblical sources for several of its key setpieces During her first talk to the workers Maria uses the story of the Tower of Babel to highlight the discord between the intellectuals and the workers Additionally a delusional Freder imagines the falseMaria as the Whore of Babylon riding on the back of a manyheaded dragon The name of the Yoshiwara club alludes to the famous redlight district of Tokyo Much of the plot line of Metropolis stems from the First World War and the culture of the Weimar Republic in Germany Lang explores the themes of industrialization and mass production in his film two developments that played a large role in the war Other postWorld War I themes that Lang includes in Metropolis include the Weimar view of American modernity fascism and communism 12 Productionedit Preproductionedit The screenplay of Metropolis was written by Fritz Lang and his wife Thea von Harbou a popular writer in Weimar Germany The films plot originated from a novel of the same title written by Harbou for the sole purpose of being made into a film The novel in turn drew inspiration from H G Wells Shelley and Villiers dIsle Adams works and other German dramas The novel featured strongly in the films marketing campaign and was serialized in the journal Illustriertes Blatt in the runup to its release Harbou and Lang collaborated on the screenplay derived from the novel and several plot points and thematic elements – including most of the references to magic and occultism present in the novel – were dropped The screenplay itself went through many rewrites and at one point featured an ending where Freder would have flown to the stars this plot element later became the basis for Langs Woman in the Moon The time setting of Metropolis is open to interpretation The 2010 rerelease and reconstruction which incorporated the original title cards written by Thea von Harbou do not specify a year Prior to the reconstruction Lotte Eisner and Paul M Jensen placed the events happening around the year 2000 Giorgio Moroder’s rescored version included a title card placing the film in 2026 while Paramount’s original US release stated that the film takes place in the year 3000 17 Filmingedit Metropolis began principal photography on 22 May 1925 with an initial budget of 1 5 million reichsmarks Lang cast two unknowns with little film experience in the lead roles Gustav Fröhlich Freder had worked in vaudeville and was originally employed as an extra on Metropolis before Thea von Harbou recommended him to Lang Brigitte Helm Maria had been given a screen test by Lang after he met her on the set of Die Nibelungen but would make her feature film debut with Metropolis In the role of Joh Fredersen Lang cast Alfred Abel a noted stage and screen actor whom he had worked with on Dr Mabuse the Gambler Lang also cast his frequent collaborator Rudolph KleinRogge in the role of Rotwang This was KleinRogges fourth film with Lang after Destiny Dr Mabuse the Gambler and Die Nibelungen Shooting of the film was a draining experience for the actors involved due to the demands that Lang placed on them For the scene where the workers city was flooded Helm and 500 children from the poorest districts of Berlin had to work for 14 days in a pool of water that Lang intentionally kept at a low temperature Lang would frequently demand numerous retakes and took two days to shoot a simple scene where Freder collapses at Marias feet by the time Lang was satisfied with the footage he had shot actor Gustav Fröhlich found he could barely stand Other anecdotes involve Langs insistence on using real fire for the climactic scene where the false Maria is burnt at the stake which resulted in Helms dress catching fire and his ordering extras to throw themselves towards powerful jets of water when filming the flooding of the workers city 20 UFA invited several trade journal representatives and several film critics to see the films shooting as parts of its promotion campaign Helm recalled her experiences of shooting the film in a contemporary interview saying that the night shots lasted three weeks and even if they did lead to the greatest dramatic moments – even if we did follow Fritz Lang’s directions as though in a trance enthusiastic and enraptured at the same time – I can’t forget the incredible strain that they put us under The work wasn’t easy and the authenticity in the portrayal ended up testing our nerves now and then For instance it wasn’t fun at all when Grot drags me by the hair to have me burned at the stake Once I even fainted during the transformation scene Maria as the android is clamped in a kind of wooden armament and because the shot took so long I didn’t get enough air 22 Shooting lasted over a year and was finally completed on 30 October 1926 20 By the time shooting finished the films budget leapt to 5 1 million reichsmarks Special effectsedit The effects expert Eugen Schüfftan created pioneering visual effects for Metropolis Among the effects used are miniatures of the city a camera on a swing and most notably the Schüfftan process in which mirrors are used to create the illusion that actors are occupying miniature sets This new technique was seen again just two years later in Alfred Hitchcocks film Blackmail 1929 25 The Maschinenmensch – the robot built by Rotwang to resurrect his lost love Hel – was created by sculptor Walter SchulzeMittendorff A wholebody plaster cast was taken of actress Brigitte Helm and the costume was then constructed around it A chance discovery of a sample of plastic wood a pliable substance designed as woodfiller allowed SchulzeMittendorff to build a costume that would both appear metallic and allow a small amount of free movement 26 Helm sustained cuts and bruises while in character as the robot as the costume was rigid and uncomfortable Original scoreedit The films original score was composed for a large orchestra by Gottfried Huppertz Huppertz drew inspiration from Richard Wagner and Richard Strauss and combined a classical orchestral voice with mild modernist touches to portray the films massive industrial city of workers Nestled within the original score were quotations of Claude Joseph Rouget de Lisles La Marseillaise and the traditional Dies Irae the latter of which was matched to the films apocalyptic imagery Huppertzs music played a prominent role during the films production oftentimes the composer played piano on Langs set in order to inform the actors performances The score was rerecorded for the 2001 DVD release of the film with Berndt Heller conducting the Rundfunksinfonieorchester Saarbrücken It was the first release of the reasonably reconstructed movie to be accompanied by Huppertzs original score In 2007 Huppertzs score was also played live by the VCS Radio Symphony which accompanied the restored version of the film at Brenden Theatres in Vacaville California 29 The score was also produced in a salon orchestration which was performed for the first time in the United States in August 2007 by The Bijou Orchestra under the direction of Leo Najar as part of a German Expressionist film festival in Bay City Michigan 30 The same forces also performed the work at the Traverse City Film Festival in Traverse City Michigan in August 2009 For the 2010 reconstruction DVD the score was performed and recorded by the Berlin Radio Symphony Orchestra conducted by Frank Strobel Strobel also conducted the premiere of the reconstructed score at Berlin Friedrichstadtpalast Other soundtracksedit There have been many other soundtracks created for Metropolis by different artists In 1975 the BBC provided an electronic score composed by William Fitzwater and Hugh Davies 31 In 1984 Giorgio Moroder restored and produced the 80minute 1984 rerelease which had a pop soundtrack written by Moroder and performed by Moroder Pat Benatar Bonnie Tyler Jon Anderson Adam Ant Cycle V Loverboy Billy Squier and Freddie Mercury In 1991 the Club Foot Orchestra created an original score that was performed live with the film It was also recorded for CD In 1994 Montenegrin experimental rock musician Rambo Amadeus wrote his version of the musical score for Metropolis At the screening of the film in Belgrade the score was played by the Belgrade Philharmonic Orchestra In 1998 the material was recorded and released on the album Metropolis B tourdeforce 32 In 1996 the Degenerate Art Ensemble then The Young Composers Collective scored the film for chamber orchestra performing it in various venues including a free outdoor concert and screening in 1997 in Seattles Gasworks Park 33 The soundtrack was subsequently released on UnLabeled Records In 2000 Jeff Mills created a techno score for Metropolis which was released as an album He also performed the score live at public screenings of the film In 2004 Abel Korzeniowski created a score for Metropolis played live by a 90piece orchestra and a choir of 60 voices and two soloists The first performance took place at the Era Nowe Horyzonty Film Festival in Poland The same year Ronnie Cramer produced a score and effects soundtrack for Metropolis that won two Aurora awards 34 The New Pollutants Mister Speed and DJ Trp has performed Metropolis Rescore live for festivals since 2005citation needed and are rescoring to the 2010 version of the film for premiere at the 2011 Adelaide Film Festival citation needed In 2010 the Alloy Orchestra has scored four different versions of the film most recently for the American premiere of the 2010 restoration In 2014 the pianistcomposer Dmytro Morykit created a new live piano score which received a standing ovation to a sellout audience at Wiltons Music Hall in London 35 Also in 2014 Spanish band Caspervek Trio premiered a new score at La Galería Jazz Vigo with further performances in Budapest Riga and Groningen Metavari rescored Metropolis as a commission from Fort Wayne Indiana’s Cinema Center for Art House Theater Day 2016 36 The rescore was released worldwide on One Way Static Records for Record Store Day 2017 and distributed in the United States by Light in the Attic Records 3738 Releaseedit Metropolis had its premiere at the UfaPalast am Zoo in Berlin on 10 January 1927 where the audience reacted to several of the films most spectacular scenes with spontaneous applause20 including a critic from the Berliner Morgenpost However others have suggested the premiere was met with muted applause interspersed with boos and hisses At the time of its German premiere Metropolis had a length of 4189 metres approximately 153 mins at 24 fps 40Metropolis had been funded in part by Paramount Pictures and MetroGoldwynMayer and UFA had formed a distribution deal with the two companies whereby they were entitled to make any change to films produced by UFA they found appropriate to ensure profitability The distribution of Metropolis was handled by Parufamet a multinational company that incorporated all three film studios Considering Metropolis too long and unwieldy Parufamet commissioned American playwright Channing Pollock to write a simpler version of the film that could be assembled using the existing material Pollock shortened the film dramatically altered its intertitles and removed all references to the character of Hel as the name sounded too similar to the English word Hell thereby removing Rotwangs original motivation for creating his robot In Pollocks cut the film ran for 3170 meters or approximately 115 minutes This version of Metropolis premiered in the US in March 1927 and was released in the UK around the same time with different title cards 40 Alfred Hugenberg a nationalist businessman cancelled UFAs debt to Paramount and MetroGoldwynMayer after taking charge of the company in April 1927 and chose to halt distribution in German cinemas of Metropolis in its original form Hugenberg had the film cut down to a length of 3241 meters removing the films perceived inappropriate communist subtext and religious imagery Hugenbergs cut of the film was released in German cinemas in August 1927 UFA distributed a still shorter version of the film 2530 meters 91 minutes in 1936 and an English version of this cut was archived in the MOMA film library 40 Receptionedit Despite the films later reputation some contemporary critics panned it The New York Times critic Mordaunt Hall called it a technical marvel with feet of clay 17 The Times went on the next month to publish a lengthy review by H G Wells who accused it of foolishness cliché platitude and muddlement about mechanical progress and progress in general He faulted Metropolis for its premise that automation created drudgery rather than relieving it wondered who was buying the machines output if not the workers and found parts of the story derivative of Shelleys Frankenstein Karel Čapeks robot stories and his own The Sleeper Awakes 42 Wells called Metropolis quite the silliest film Writing in The New Yorker Oliver Claxton called it unconvincing and overlong faulting much of the plot as laid on with a terrible Teutonic heaviness and an unnecessary amount of philosophizing in the beginning that made the film as soulless as the city of its tale He also described the acting as uninspired with the exception of Brigitte Helm Nevertheless Claxton wrote that the setting the use of people and their movement and various bits of action stand out as extraordinary and make it nearly an obligatory picture 43 Other critics considered the film a remarkable achievement that surpassed even its high expectations praising its visual splendour and ambitious production values Nazi propagandist Joseph Goebbels was impressed with the films message of social justice In a 1928 speech he declared that the political bourgeoisie is about to leave the stage of history In its place advance the oppressed producers of the head and hand the forces of Labor to begin their historical mission Fritz Lang himself later expressed dissatisfaction with the film In an interview with Peter Bogdanovich in Who The Devil Made It Conversations with Legendary Film Directors published in 1998 he expressed his reservations The main thesis was Mrs Von Harbous but I am at least 50 percent responsible because I did it I was not so politically minded in those days as I am now You cannot make a socialconscious picture in which you say that the intermediary between the hand and the brain is the heart I mean thats a fairy tale – definitely But I was very interested in machines Anyway I didnt like the picture – thought it was silly and stupid – then when I saw the astronauts what else are they but part of a machine Its very hard to talk about picturesshould I say now that I like Metropolis because something I have seen in my imagination comes true when I detested it after it was finished In his profile for Lang featured in the same book which prefaces the interview Bogdanovich suggested that Langs distaste for his own film also stemmed from the Nazi Partys fascination with the film Von Harbou became a passionate member of the Nazi Party in 1933 They divorced the following year Later acclaimedit Roger Ebert noted that Metropolis is one of the great achievements of the silent era a work so audacious in its vision and so angry in its message that it is if anything more powerful today than when it was made The film also has a 99 rating at Rotten Tomatoes based on 115 reviews 48 The film was ranked No 12 in Empire magazines The 100 Best Films Of World Cinema in 201049 and it was ranked number 2 in a list of the 100 greatest films of the Silent Era 50 The 2002 version awarded the New York Film Critics Circle Awards Special Award to Kino International for the restoration In 2012 in correspondence with the Sight & Sound Poll the British Film Institute called Metropolis the 35th greatest film of all time 51 Peter Bradshaw noted that The Maschinenmensch Robot based on Maria is a brilliant eroticisation and fetishisation of modern technology 52 Restorationsedit Poster for the 2002 restored version featuring the Maschinenmensch The original premiere cut of Metropolis has been lost and for decades the film could be seen only in heavily truncated edits that lacked nearly a quarter of the original length However over the years various elements of footage have been rediscovered so that by 2007 it was possible to see the film in almost its original form 53 Giorgio Moroder Presents Metropolis 1984edit In 1984 a new restoration and edit of the film running 83 minutes was made by Moroder whose version was tinted featured additional special effects replaced intertitles of character dialogue with subtitles and incorporated a soundtrack featuring songs by popular recording artists instead of a traditional score It was the first serious attempt made at restoring Metropolis to Langs original vision and until Kinos restorations in 2002 and 2010 it was the most complete version of the film the shorter run time was due to the extensive use of subtitles and a faster frame rate than the original The film was nominated for two Raspberry Awards Worst Original Song for Love Kills and Worst Musical Score for Moroder In August 2011 after years of the Moroder version being unavailable on video in any format due to music licensing it was announced that Kino International had managed to resolve the problems the film was to be released on BluRay and DVD in November and it would have a limited theatrical rerelease 55 Restored Authorized Edition 2002edit The moderate commercial success of the Moroder version inspired Enno Patalas to make an exhaustive attempt to restore the movie in 1986 This version was the most accurate reconstruction yet being based on the film’s script and musical score The basis of Patalas work was a copy in the Museum of Modern Art collection 56 After 1986 previously unknown sections of the film were discovered in film museums and archives around the world In conjunction with Kino International Metropolis’s current copyright holder the F W Murnau Foundation released a digitally restored version of the film in 2002 entitled the Restored Authorized Edition runtime 118 mins This edition includes the film’s original music score and title cards that describe the events featured in missing sequences The footage was digitally cleaned and repaired to remove defects The Complete Metropolis 2010edit On 1 July 2008 film experts in Berlin announced that a 16 mm reduction negative of the original cut had been discovered in the archives of the Museo del Cine in Buenos Aires Argentina 5758 The print had been in circulation since 1928 starting off with a film distributor then passed to a private collector an art foundation and finally the Museo del Cine The print was investigated by the museum curator Argentinian film collector curatorhistorian and TV presenter Fernando Martín Peña after he heard an anecdote from a cinema club manager expressing surprise at the length of a print of Metropolis he had viewed 59 In 2005 the Australian historian and politician Michael Organ had examined a print of the film in the National Film Archive of New Zealand Organ discovered that the print contained scenes missing from other copies of the film After hearing of the discovery of the Argentine print of the film and the restoration project Organ contacted the German restorers the New Zealand print contained 11 missing scenes and featured some brief pieces of footage that were used to restore damaged sections of the Argentine print It is believed that the Australian New Zealand and Argentine prints were all scored from the same master The newly discovered footage was used in the restoration project 60 The Argentine print was in poor condition and required considerable restoration before it was repremiered in February 2010 Two short sequences depicting a monk preaching and a fight between Rotwang and Fredersen were damaged beyond repair Title cards describing the action were inserted by the restorers to compensate The Argentine print revealed new scenes that enriched the films narrative complexity The characters of Josaphat the Thin Man and 11811 appear throughout the film and the character Hel is reintroduced 61 This new restoration was released on DVD and BluRay by Kino Video in 2010 under the title The Complete Metropolis Copyrightedit The American copyright lapsed in 1953 which led to a proliferation of versions being released on video Along with other foreignmade works the films U S copyright was restored in 1996 by the Uruguay Round Agreements Act62 but the constitutionality of this copyright extension was challenged in Golan v Gonzales and as Golan v Holder it was ruled that In the United States that body of law includes the bedrock principle that works in the public domain remain in the public domain Removing works from the public domain violated Plaintiffs vested First Amendment interests 63 This only applied to the rights of socalled reliance parties i e parties who had relied on the public domain status of restored works The case was overturned on appeal to the Tenth Circuit63 and that decision was upheld by the U S Supreme Court on 18 January 2012 This had the effect of restoring the copyright in the work as of 1 January 1996 Though it will remain copyrighted in Germany and the rest of the European Union until the end of 2046 70 years after Fritz Langs deathNotes 2 under current U S copyright law it will be copyrighted there only through 31 December 2022 due to the rule of the shorter term as implemented in the Uruguay Round Agreements Act the U S copyright limit for films of its age is 95 years from publication per the Copyright Term Extension Act Adaptationsedit Several adaptations have been made of the original Metropolis including a 1989 musical theatre adaptation Metropolis 64 In December 2007 producer Thomas Schühly Alexander The Adventures of Baron Munchausen gained the remake rights to Metropolis but it is still unknown if the remake is in production 65 In December 2016 Sam Esmail Mr Robot will adapt the film into a miniseries 66 The Metropolis manga sometimes referred to as Osamu Tezukas Metropolis or Robotic Angel has some parallels to the film However writer Osamu Tezuka stated that he had only seen a single still image of the movie in a magazine at the time of creating his manga The manga has been adapted into a feature length anime released in 2001 In popular cultureedit This article appears to contain trivial minor or unrelated references to popular culture Please reorganize this content to explain the subjects impact on popular culture rather than simply listing appearances add references to reliable sources if possible otherwise delete it December 2016 This article needs additional citations for verification Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources Unsourced material may be challenged and removed December 2016 Ralph McQuarries design of C3PO of the Star Wars franchise is acknowledged as having been inspired by the Maschinenmensch 6768 Madonnas 1989 music video Express Yourself pays homage to the film and Fritz Lang Some scenes from the film were featured in the music video for Queens 1984 hit Radio Ga Ga The tracks were prepared by Freddie Mercury Janelle Monáe based both her concept albums on the original film including her EP Metropolis Suite I The Chase released mid2007 and The ArchAndroid released in 2009 The latter also included an homage to Metropolis on the album cover with the film version of the Tower of Babel among the remainder of the city The albums follow the adventures of Monáes alterego and robot Cindi Mayweather as a messianic figure to the android community of Metropolis 7172 Pop singersongwriter Lady Gaga has made a series of references to Langs film within her music videos Visual allusions to the film are noted most predominantly in her music videos for Alejandro Born This Way and Applause 73 The Brazilian metal band Sepultura named their 2013 album The Mediator Between Head and Hands Must Be the Heart after a quote from the film 74 Swedish Postmetal band Cult of Luna drew inspiration on Metropolis and its bleak dystopian ambient for their 2013 albums Vertikal and Vertikal II The 2014 music video Digital Witness by St Vincent in collaboration with Chino Moya presents a surreal pastelhued future in which lead singer Annie Clark is a standin for Maria 75 See alsoedit 1920s portal Film portal Germany portal List of dystopian films List of films featuring surveillance List of German films 1919–1933 List of most expensive nonEnglishlanguage films List of rediscovered films 1927 in science fiction Referencesedit Notesedit In the films opening credits several characters appear in the cast list without the names of the actors who play them The Creative Man The Machine Man Death and The Seven Deadly Sins These roles sometimes are incorrectly attributed to Brigitte Helm since they appear just above the last credit in the list which is Brigitte Helm as Maria § 65 coauthors cinematographic works musical composition with words2 In the case of film works and works similar to cinematographic works copyright expires seventy years after the death of the last survivor of the following persons the principal director author of the screenplay author of the dialogue the composer of music for the cinematographic music 1The people considered under this German law are director Fritz Lang died 1976 writer Thea von Harbou died 1954 and possibly score composer Gottfried Huppertz died 1937 The Blue Angel Kino Restored Edition Citationsedit SciFi Film History Metropolis 1927 – Although the first science fiction film is generally agreed to be Georges Méliès A Trip To The Moon 1902 Metropolis 1926 is the first feature length outing of the genre scififilmhistory com retrieved 15 May 2013 Hahn Ronald M Jansen Volker Die 100 besten Kultfilme Heyne Filmbibliothek München 1998 ISBN 345386073X S 396 German Kaes Anton 2009 Shell Shock Cinema Weimar Culture and the Wounds of War Princeton New Jersey 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2011 Rock Version of Silent Film Classic Metropolis to Hit Theatres This Fall The Hollywood Reporter Archived from the original on 30 January 2014 Lorenzo Codelli Entretien avec Enno Patalas conservateur de la cinémathèque de Munich sur Metropolis et quelques autres films de Fritz Lang In Positif n° 285 novembre 1984 pp 15 sqq Metropolis All New Restoration Kino Lorber Archived from the original on 5 October 2015 Retrieved 16 February 2016 Film Long lost scenes from Fritz Langs Metropolis found in Argentina The Guardian Archived from the original on 9 October 2015 Retrieved 9 February 2016 Fritz Langs Metropolis Key scenes rediscovered Die Zeit 2 July 2008 Archived from the original on 24 June 2014 Retrieved 28 August 2009 Steve Pennells 14 February 2010 Cinemas Holy Grail Sunday Star Times New Zealand p C5 A Tale of Two Cities Metropolis Restored Film Comment Archived from the original on 16 February 2016 Retrieved 16 February 2016 Golan v Ashcroft Compaint cyber law harvard edu Archived from the original on 19 April 2003 Retrieved 19 February 2016 a b Public Domain Victory in Golan v Holder digitalscholarship org Archived from the original on 28 September 2010 Retrieved 19 February 2016 `Metropolis Adaptation Opens Renovated Olympic Theatre articles chicagotribune com Archived from the original on 3 September 2014 Retrieved 17 February 2016 Ed Meza 9 December 2007 Metropolis finds new life Variety Archived from the original on 17 February 2016 Retrieved 17 February 2016 Cynthia Littleton 16 December 2016 ‘Mr Robot’ Creator Sam Esmail Sets ‘Metropolis’ ‘Homecoming’ Development Projects Variety Retrieved 16 December 2016 The Characters of Star Wars – Star Wars Trilogy DVD The Official Anthony Daniels Web Site Metropolis Suite 1 The Chase All Music Archived from the original on 23 June 2012 Retrieved 17 February 2016 Kot Greg Turn It Up Janelle Monae the interview I identify with androids Chicago Tribune Archived from the original on 20 October 2013 Retrieved 1 September 2014 Every Cultural Reference You Probably Didn’t Catch In Lady Gaga’s New Video BuzzFeed Archived from the original on 24 August 2013 Retrieved 17 February 2016 Navas Judy Cantor 24 September 2013 Sepultura Talks Tricky Mediator Album Tour Dates Announced Billboard com Archived from the original on 30 August 2014 Retrieved 1 September 2014 Music Video of the Week St Vincent Digital Witness Time Magazine Archived from the original on 6 February 2014 Retrieved 17 February 2016 Bibliographyedit Bukatman Scott 1997 Blade Runner London BFI modern classics British Film Institute ISBN 0851706231 Ebert Roger 1985 Roger Eberts Movie Home Companion 400 Films on Cassette 198085 Andrews McMeel & Parker ISBN 9780836262094 Eisner Lotte 1986 Fritz Lang Massachusetts Da Capo Press ISBN 9780306802713 Hoesterey Ingeborg 2001 Pastiche cultural memory in art film literature Indiana Indiana University Press ISBN 9780253214454 Jensen Paul M 1969 The cinema of Fritz Lang New York A S Barnes ISBN 0302020020 Kaplan E Ann 1981 Fritz Lang A Guide to References and Resources Boston G K Hall & Co ISBN 9780816180356 Kreimeier Klaus 1999 The Ufa Story A History of Germanys Greatest Film Company 1918–1945 Berkeley University of California Press ISBN 0520220692 Lang Fritz Grant Barry Keith 2003 Fritz Lang interviews Mississippi University Press of Mississippi ISBN 9781578065776 McGilligan Patrick 1997 Fritz Lang The Nature of the Beast New York St Martins Press ISBN 9780312194543 Michael Mick St 2004 Madonna Talking Madonna in Her Own Words Omnibus Press ISBN 1844494187 Minden Michael Bachmann Holger 2002 Fritz Langs Metropolis Cinematic Visions of Technology and Fear New York Camden House ISBN 9781571131461 Mok Michel May 1930 New Ideas Sweep Movie Studios Popular Science Popular Science Publishing 116 5 ISSN 01617370 Russell Tim 2007 Fill er Up The Great American Gas Station Minneapolis Voyageur Press ISBN 9780760328712 Schoenbaum David 1997 Hitlers Social Revolution Class and Status in Nazi Germany 1933–1939 London WW Norton and Company ISBN 0393315541 White Susan M 1995 The Cinema of Max Ophuls Magisterial Vision and the Figure of Woman Columbia University Press ISBN 9780231101134 Wilson John 2005 The Official Razzie Movie Guide Enjoying the Best of Hollywoods Worst Grand Central Publishing ISBN 0446693340 External linksedit The official FriedrichWilhelmMurnauStiftung site for the complete restoration The official EurekaMasters of Cinema UK site for the complete restoration The official Kino US site for the complete restoration Metropolis on IMDb Metropolis at the TCM Movie Database Metropolis at AllMovie Metropolis at Rotten Tomatoes Metropolis at Metacritic Metropolis film review by H G Wells Metropolis Archive 2011 Michael Organ Metropolis Archive movie stills and literature Metropolis British premiere original programme 1927
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